There are a number of categories of Exposure scans, they include the following:
Secrets Scans - Secrets Detection
Detects any secret left exposed in the artifacts stored in Artifactory to stop any accidental leak of internal tokens or credentials.
Xray scans your configuration files, text files and binary files for plaintext credentials, private keys, tokens, and similar secrets. Xray uses a constantly-updated list of more than 150 specific types of credentials. In addition, Xray uses a proprietary generic secrets matcher, for the best coverage possible. Xray also scans for issues in the certificates used in the software, such as expired or weak certificates.
Use of expired certificates
Inclusion of plaintext API keys, private keys
Services Scans - Services Configuration Security
Detects whether common OSS libraries and services are configured securely, so an application can be easily hardened by default.
Xray scans for configuration issues and security malpractices for specific services and daemons included in your artifacts, such as web servers, database services, proxies, logging daemons, and so on.
Insecure use of credentials (NGINX credential in config file, credential stored insecurely)
Enforcement of secure communication (redirecting HTTP to HTTPS, enforcing TLS, TLS version)
Allowing weak crypto algorithms
Externally exposing Admin interface
Un-authenticated access to resources
Applications Scans - Application Libraries Misuse
Detects whether common OSS libraries and services are used securely by the application.
Xray scans for configuration issues, security malpractices, and insecure usage of common OSS libraries in your application framework, including the use of excessive privileges, insecure communication methods, insufficient authorization mechanisms, or unsafe cryptographic operations.
In this version, only Python and Node-JS applications are supported.
Insecure use of credentials (insecure key storage)
Enforcement of secure communication (redirecting HTTP to HTTPS, enforcing TLS, verifying the TLS certificates of all servers in Python scripts, enforcing TLS version, using secure HTTP headers)
Use of weak crypto keys
Throttle logins to prevent brute-force attacks (Throttle Node.js logins to prevent brute-force attacks)
Invoking Node.js exec functionality with user-provided input
IaC Scans - IaC Security Analysis
Scans IaC files stored in Artifactory for early detection of cloud and infrastructure misconfigurations to prevent attacks and data leak.
Xray scans your Terraform state in Artifactory for Cloud services configuration issues such as the following examples. Xray scans Terraform states for AWS, Azure and GCP cloud services.
Insufficient access restrictions to services (public access to repositories, publicly accessible clusters, globally readable/deletable/writeable buckets, use of admin roles in ECS services, IAM users with privileged access to all resources, enforce authorization for all API Gateway methods)
Insecure use of credentials (use of hardcoded credentials)
Allowing weak crypto algorithms (use of weak cipher suites)
Running batches in privileged mode
Enforcement of secure communication (listening to HTTP, unencrypted communications)
Wildcard actions in Glue policies
Missing logging (e.g., found CloudTrail trails with logging disabled)
Disabled upgrades (e.g., RDS database instance with disabled minor engine upgrades)
Data at rest encryption enablement for Kinesis streams