Behind the scenes, the Jenkins Artifactory Plugin utilises the Gradle Artifactory Plugin. It does that by injecting the Jenkins job's configuration into the artifactory closure defined by the Gradle Artifactory Plugin.
You also have the option of defining the artifactory closure in the build script with default values. When the Jenkins job is triggered, it will override these values with the values defined in the job configuration.
Since the resolution details are not defined as part of the artifactory closure in the gradle script, they cannot be overridden by the Jenkins job.