To enable calculation of Chef package metadata in local repositories so they are, in effect, Chef supermarkets, set the Package Type to Chef when you create the repository:
Chef Cookbook Repository Layout
Artifactory allows you to define any layout for your Chef Cookbook repositories. In order to upload packages according to your custom layout, you need to package your Chef Cookbook files with Knife or Berkshelf and archive the files as tar.gz. Then you can upload to any path within your local Chef supermarket, see Publishing Cookbooks.